Built upon theories of the built environment’s effect on public health outcome and addressing the importance of cultural sensitivity in urban design and planning, this article gives an introductory account of the urban context of contemporary Chinese cities in relationship to it current public health issues. It also reviews the recent healthcare reform in China and its implication on the market and changing urban environment. The objective is to develop a contextual understanding to inform the planning and development of healthy communities in China. The result is proposed in the concept of Health Community. It is an integrated framework of healthcare facilities and its surrounding communities.